The history of leather - does everyone know it?

2020-02-17 13:57



One: the history of leather

More than 5,000 years ago, people first used leather to prevent wind and cold, and then used leather as a noble gift. By the Zhou Dynasty (more than 1,000 BC), people had initially mastered tanning through long-term practice. The fur-making technology formed the original tanning industry. In the middle of the 19th century, the discovery and application of the chrome leather soft method greatly accelerated the development of the tanning industry, and gradually brought the tanning production into a scientific track. At the beginning of the century, with the successful development of various tanning chemicals, the tanning industry has developed rapidly, and many countries have gradually formed a large tanning industrial system, and the tanning industry has also transitioned from the original pure manual operation to Semi-mechanized and mechanized production.

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Two: Leather classification and processing technology:

(Brief description 1. Natural leather. 2. Synthetic leather. 3. Textile material)

Leather is generally divided into: 1. Natural leather. 2. Synthetic leather. 3. Textile materials

1. Artificial leather is further divided into artificial foam leather and synthetic leather.

①. The artificial foam leather is mainly made of polyurethane, woolen, polyurethane and other resins as coatings, and made of cloth as the base material.

②. The surface of synthetic leather is mainly polyurethane, and the base material is a non-woven fabric made of synthetic fibers such as polyester, cotton, and polypropylene.

(1) Synthetic leather.

The surface is smooth, the thickness is uniform, the color and strength are uniform, and it is superior to natural leather in terms of waterproof, acid and alkali resistance, and microorganisms. But it is not resistant to high temperature, high cold, and easy to age.

(2) Artificial leather.

It is made of plain weave, canvas, rat weave, recycled fabric, fiber knitted fabric, etc. as the base, and then finished with different finishing materials.

Commonly used are: PVC artificial leather, PVC foam leather, etc.

(3) Textile materials.

There are fine canvas, cotton blended fabric, vinylon fabric, plain weave, imitation cashmere, and so on.

2. Animal leather is a kind of natural leather, which is what we often call genuine leather. It is a fixed and durable material transformed from animal (raw hide) through a series of physical and chemical processing. It has special advantages such as good air permeability and anti-aging.

The processing process of animal leather is very complicated, and the finished leather needs to go through dozens of processes: raw hide ---- water immersion ---- meat removal ---- degreasing ---- dehairing ---- soaking alkali --- -Expansion----Deliming----Softening----Pickling----Tanning----Splitting----Shaping----Retanning----Neutralizing---- --Dyeing and oiling-filling--drying--finishing--finishing-finished leather.

There are also many types of animal leather. According to the material, the common ones are sheep leather, cow leather, horse leather, snake leather, pig leather, crocodile leather, etc. According to performance, they can be divided into two-layer leather, full-grain leather, and suede leather. , Modified surface leather, film leather, composite leather, painted split leather, etc. 

Two-layer leather refers to the chemical and physical methods of pressing the crushed leather during leather processing. This type of leather is relatively hard, easy to break, and has insufficient elongation.

Full-grain leather: refers to the leather that retains and uses the original surface (growth or scale side) of animal skins, called front leather. Full-grain leather is rarely used directly without finishing, and most of them are beautified and finished such as embossing. Leather, and the surface of the leather is completely retained in the leather, and its fastness is good. The surface of the full-grain leather is unfinished or painted and is very thin, maintaining the softness and elasticity of the leather and good breathability. Its finished products Comfortable, durable and beautiful.

Suede: refers to the leather with a velvet-like surface, which is called suede by grinding the front side of the leather (the side of growing hair or scales), and is called suede by grinding the reverse side of the leather (meat side). The two-layer velvet made of two-layer leather and hemp leather is called two-layer velvet. Since the suede has no coating layer, its air permeability is better and its softness is improved, but its waterproof, dust-proof and maintenance properties are deteriorated, and there is no grain. The fastness of the nubuck leather becomes lower. Suede leather products are comfortable to wear and have good hygienic properties, but except for suede leather made by oil tanning, suede leather is easy to get dirty and difficult to clean and maintain. It is mainly used for leather shoes, leather clothing, leather bags and gloves.

Modified leather: refers to the leather that partially or completely removes the original surface of the animal skin, and then coats it with an artificial film. There are top-layer modified leather and two-layer modified leather. Most of the surface films are made of various chemical materials. The finishing liquid is made by coating and pressing certain patterns for many times, and some finishing leathers are made by transferring a pre-made chemical film to the surface of the leather, also called film-moving leather or film-coated leather. The finishing leather is mainly to make up the surface of the material. Insufficient, its breathability is poor, its fastness is low, its folding resistance and aging resistance are reduced, and it is not as comfortable to wear as full-grain leather, but its water resistance is good, and it is easy to clean and maintain.

Composite leather refers to a layer of rubber film compounded on the split leather, which has good chemical resistance and durability, and is suitable for boots.

Finished split leather is a colored resin layer added to the split leather

Daqin Leather firmly believes that quality is the foundation of an enterprise, and integrity is the foundation of survival!
Daqin Leather Goods has been speaking with facts, good products and good services!